Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol 4, No 3 (2013), 454-463, May 2013
doi:10.4304/jltr.4.3.454-463

Gender and Language Education Research: A Review

Abolaji S. Mustapha

Abstract


Gender and language education studies have multiplied in the past one decade. However, it does not appear that any state-of-the-art article has reviewed the various undertakings. This paper attempts to fill this gap by focusing on gender representation in learning materials and classroom interaction studies globally within gender and education literature. Selected studies from the 70s to date are reviewed under three phases and suggestions for further investigation are made with the anticipation that learning materials and classroom interaction studies would help facilitate the achievement of the goal of gender equality in and through education.



Keywords


language education; gender; research; review

References


Alderson, C. (1997). Models of language: whose? what for? what use? In A. Ryan & A.Wray (eds.), Evolving models of language: British Studies in Applied Linguistics 12. Clevedon: BAAL/Multilingual Matters.
 
Ansari, H. & A. Babaii, (2003). On the manifestation of subliminal sexism in current Iranian secondary school ELT textbooks. Iranian Journal of Applied Linguistics 6, 57-69.
 
Bailey, B. & L. Parkes (1995). Gender: The Not so hidden issue in language arts materials used in Jamaica. Journal of Caribbean Studies 17.2, 265-278.
 
Birjandi, P. & S. Anabi (2006). English for the pre-university students. Tehran: Centre for the Publication of Iranian Textbooks.
 
Blumerg, R. L. (2007). Gender bias in textbooks: A hidden obstacle on the road to gender equality in education. Paris: UNESCO. Background paper for 2008 Education for All Global Monitoring Report, Education for All by 2012 - Will we make it? www.unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0001500155509e.pdf. (14/08/2010).
 
 
Brugeilles, C. & S. Cromer (2009). Analysing gender representations in school textbooks. Paris: Universite Paris Ouest Nanterre Centre de Recherche Populations et Societetes (CERPOS).
 
 
Byrd, P. 2001. Textbooks: Evaluation for selection and analysis for implementation. In M. Celce-Murcia (ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 415-424.
 
Cameron, D. (1998). The feminist critique of language. London: Routledge.
 
Carlson, M. (2007). Images and values in textbook and practice: Language courses for immigrants in Sweden. In M. Carlson, et al. (eds.), Education in multicultural societies - Turkish and Swedish perspectives. Istanbul: Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul. 125-142.
PMid:17182812 
 
Carrol, D. & J. Kowitz. (1994). Using concordancing techniques. In J. Sunderland, (ed.), Exploring gender. London: Prentice Hall. 73-82
 
Cerezal, F. (1991). Gender discrimination and ELT textbooks. Paper presented at 25th ATEFL Conference, Exeter.
 
Cereal, F. (1994). Lenguaje y discriminacion generica en libros de texto de ingles. Miscelanea 10.
 
 
Chandran, S. K. & M. H. Abdullah (2003). Gender bias in Malaysian English language textbooks. In J. Mukundan (ed.), Readings on ELT material. Serdang: Universiti Putra Malaysia Press.
 
Child, I., Potter, E. H. & E. M. Levine (1960). Children's textbooks and personality development: An exploration in the social psychology of education. In J. F. Rosenblith, J. F. & A. Wesley (eds.). Causes of behaviour: Readings in child development and education psychology. Rockleigh, New Jersey: Allyn.
 
 
Cincotta, M.S. (1978). Textbooks and their influences on sex-roles stereotypes formation. BABEL: Journal of the Australian Federation of MLTS Associations 14.3, 24-29.
 
Davis, K. A. & Skilton-Sylvester, E. (2004). Looking back, taking stock, moving forward: Investigating gender in TESOL. TESOL Quarterly 38.3, 381-404.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3588346
 
Drayton, K. (1997). White men's knowledge: Sex, race and class in Caribbean English Language textbooks. In E. A. Leo-Rhynie, B. Bailey & C. Barrow (eds.), Gender: A multidisciplinary perspective. Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers.
PMCid:PMC1904712
 
Foshay, E. M. (1990). Art in the bloom. London: Universe Publishers.
 
Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Herder & Herder.
 
Gharbavi, A. & S. A. Mousavi. (2012). A content analysis of textbooks: Investigating gender bias as a social prominence in Iranian High School English textbooks. English Linguistics Research 1.1, 42-49.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5430/elr.v1n1p42
 
Gonzalez, M. (1990). El sexismo en la educacion: la discriminacion cotidiana. Ciudad Universitaria Rodrigo Facio: Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica.
 
 
Graci, J. P. (1989). Are foreign language textbooks sexist? Exploration of models of evaluation. Foreign Language Annals 22, 77-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1989.tb02771.x (accessed 20/8/2010).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1989.tb02771.x
 
Gupta, F. A. & S. Y. A. Lee. (1990). Gender representation in English language textbooks used in Singapore primary schools. Language Education 4.1, 29-50.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500789009541271
 
Hamdan, S. (2010). English-language textbooks reflect gender bias: A case study in Jordan. Advances in Gender and Education 2, 22-26.
 
Hartman, J. & E. L. Judd. (1978). Sexism and TESOL materials. TESOL Quarterly 12, 383-393.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3586137
 
Healy, D. (2009). The representation of women and men in a modern EFL textbook: Are popular textbooks gender biased? Memoirs of the Osaka Institute of Technology, Series B 54.2, 91-100.
 
Hellinger, M. (1980). "For men must work, and women must weep": Sexism in English Language textbooks used in German schools. Women's Studies International Quarterly 3, 267-275.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0148-0685(80)92323-4
 
Holmes, J. (1991). Language and gender: a state-of-the-art survey article. Language Teaching 24.4, 207-20.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0261444800006455
 
Holmes, J. (2009). Gender and everyday life: The new sociology. Oxon: Routledge, 10-14.
PMid:19561949 PMCid:PMC2700573
 
Hsu, F. H. (1992). A case study of discriminatory gender stereotyping in Taiwan's elementary school textbooks. (Unpublished EdD Thesis). New York: Columbia University Teachers College.
 
 
Jafri, R. (1993). Gender bias and female education in Pakistan. Lahore: Aurat Foundantion.
 
Jaworski, A. (1983). Sexism in textbooks. British Journal of Language Teaching 21.2, 109-113.
 
Johansson, S. & K. Malmsjo. (2009). Gender bias in EFL textbook dialogues. Malmo hogskola.
 
 
Jones, M., Kiteku, C. & Sunderland, J. (1997). Discourse roles, gender and language textbook dialogues: who learn what from John and Sally? Gender and Education 9.4, 469-490.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540259721204
 
Jones, M., Kiteku, C. & J. Sunderland. (1995). Discourse roles, gender and language textbook dialogues: Who learns what from John and Sally? Gender and Education 9.4, 469-490.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540259721204
 
Kalia, N. N. (1986). From sexism to equality: A handbook on how to eliminate sexist bias from our textbooks and other writings. New Delhi: New India Publications.
 
Kanemaru, F. (1998). Sexism and Japanese English textbooks. The Language Teacher 22.5
 
 
Khurshid, K., I. G. Gillani & M. A. Hashmi. (2010). A study of the representation of female image in the textbooks of English and Urdu at secondary school level. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences 30.2, 425-437.
 
Lamidi, T. (2009). Gender-neutral pronoun usage among selected second language users of English in Nigeria. In Odebunmi, A., E. A. Arua & S. Arimi (eds.) Language, politics and gender: A festschrift in honour of Professor Y. K. Yusuf. Ibadan: Centre for Black African Art and Civilization (CBAAC). 191-211.
 
 
Lee, J. F. K. (2007). Acceptability of sexist language among young people in Hong Kong. Sex Roles 56, 285-295.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-006-9170-4
 
Lee, J. F. K. (2011). Gender representation - An exploration of standardized evaluation methods (Book Review) Sex Roles 64, 148-150.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-010-9823-1
 
Lee, J. F. K. & Collin, P. (2008). Gender Voices in Hong Kong English Textbooks - Some Past and Current Practices. Sex Roles 59, 127-137.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-008-9414-6
 
Lesikin, I. (2001). Determining social prominence. A methodology for uncovering gender bias in ESL textbooks. In D. R. Hall & A. Hewing, A. (eds.) Innovation in English language teaching. London: Routledge. 275-282.
Madu, B. N. & L. A. Kasanga (2005). Sex differences in the acquisition of English as a second language. Gender and Behaviour 3, 442-452.
 
McCormick, T. M. (1994). Creating the non-sexist classroom - A multicultural approach. New York: Teachers College Press.
 
McCormick, P. (1995). Are girls taught to fail? U.S. Catholic 60.2, 38-42.
 
McKinney, C. (2005). Textbooks for Diverse Learners: A critical analysis of learning materials used in South African Schools. Cape Town: HRSC.2005.
 
Mills, S. (1995). Feminist stylistics. London: Routledge.
 
Mukundan, J. & V. Nimehchisalem. (2008). Gender representation in Malaysian Secondary School English Language textbooks. Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching 4.2, 155-173.
 
Mustedanagic, A. (2010). Gender in English language and EFL textbooks. A term paper submitted to Halmstad University. Hogskola
 
 
Mukundan, J. (2003). A composite framework for ESL textbook evaluation. In J. Mukundan (Ed.), Readings on ELT material. Serdang: Universiti Putra Malaysia Press.
 
Page, E. & J. Jha. (2009). Exploring gender and stereotyping in secondary schools. London: The Commonwealth Secretariat.
 
Porecca, K. L. (1984). Sexism in current ESL textbooks. TESOL Quarterly 18.4, 705-724.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3586584
 
Poulou, S. (1997). Sexism in the discourse roles of textbook dialogues. Language Learning Journal 15, 68-73.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09571739785200141
 
Renner, C. E. (1997). Women are 'busy, tall and beautiful': Looking at sexism in EFL materials. Paper presented at the National Seminar: Mind the Language (Rome, 1996) and at the Annual Meeting of TESOL, Orlando.
 
 
Robson, D. (2001). Women and minorities in economics textbooks: Are they being adequately represented? The Journal of Economic Education 32.2, 186-191.
 
Rogers, C. (1980). A way of being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
 
Ross, H. & Shi, J. (2003). Entering the gendered world of teaching materis, Part II. Chinese Education and Society 36.3, 3-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2753/CED1061-193236033
 
Sadker, M. & D. Sadker. (1980). Sexism in teacher education texts. Harvard Educational Review 50, 36-46.
 
Sadker, D. (2002). An educator's primer to the gender war. Phi Delta Kappan 84 .3, 235-44.
 
Sabir, A. (2008). Review of Moroccan school textbooks for gender equality and human rights by Regional Director (HREA): Project Results. http://www.achr.hn/newen63.html, 1-2. (accessed 8/7/2012).
 
 
Sano, F., M. Ida & T. Hardy. (2001). Gender representations in Japanese EFL textbooks. JALT 2001 Conference Proceedings.
 
 
Schmitz, B. (1975). Sexism in French language textbooks. In R. Lafayette (ed.) The Cultural revolution in foreign language teaching. Skokie, III.: National Textbook Co. 119-130.
 
 
Seng, T. C. (2003). Gender: The missing factor in the selection of materials. In J. Mukundan (ed.), Readings on ELT Material. Serdang: Universiti Putra Malaysia Press.
 
Song, H. (2003). Who is a good student? An exploration and analysis of stereotyped gender impressions among junior middle school teachers of science subjects. Chinese Education and Society 36.3, 43-54.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2753/CED1061-1932360343
 
Skelton, C. (1997). Revisiting gender issues in reading schemes. Education 3-13, 25.1, 37-43.
 
 
SIDA, (2007). Progress in educational development: SIDA's contributions, 2006. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Agency.
 
Sileo, T. W., & M. Prater. (1998). Preparing professionals for partnerships with parents of students with disabilities: Textbook considerations regarding cultural diversity. Exception Children 64.4, 513-28.
 
Spender, D. (1992). Invisible women: The schooling scandal. London: The Women Press.
 
Stockdale, D.A. (2006). Gender representation in an EFL textbook. A paper submitted to the School of Humanities of the University of Birmingham, UK.
 
 
Stromquist, N., M. Lee & B. Brock-Utne. (1998). The explicit and the hidden school, In N. Stromquist & K. Monkman (eds.), Women in the third world: An encyclopedia of contemporary issues. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc. 397-407.
 
Sunderland, J. (1994). Introduction. In J. Sunderland (ed.), Exploring gender: Questions and implications for English language education. London: Prentice Hall.
 
Sunderland, J. (2000). Issues of gender representations in textbooks: A state of the art studies. Language Teaching 33.4, 203-223.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0261444800015688
 
Sunderland, J., F. A. Rahim, M. Cowley, C. Leontzakou & J. Shattuck. (2002). From representation towards dicursive practices: Gender in the foreign language textbook revisited. In L. Litosseliti & J. Sunderland, (eds.), Gender identity and discourse analysis. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 223-256.
 
Talansky, S. (1986). Sex role stereotyping in TEFL teaching materials. Perspectives 11.3, 32-41.
 
Tembo, L. P. (1984). Men and women in school textbooks. Paris: UNESCO.
PMid:6600051 
 
Tembo, M. (2007). Personal interview. Washington DC, March 12.
 
 
Thomson, C. K., & Otsuji, E. (2003). Evaluation of business Japanese textbooks: Issues of gender. Japanese Studies 23, 185-202.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1037139032000129711
 
Treichler, P. & F. Frank. (1989). Introduction: Scholarship, feminism, and language change. In Frank, F. & P. Treichler (eds.), Language gender and professional writing: Theoretical approaches and guidelines for non-sexist usage. NY: MLA. 1-32.
 
U'ren, M. B. (1971). The image of woman in textbooks. In V. Gornick & B. K. Moran (eds.) Woman in sexist society: Studies in power and powerlessness. New York: Basic Books.
PMid:5120318 
 
Westbury, I. (1990). Textbooks, textbook publishers, and the quality of schooling. In. D. L. Elliot & A. Woodward (eds.), Textbooks and Schooling in the United States. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 1-22.
 
Whiteley, P. (1996). The gender fairness of integrated science textbooks used in Jamaican High Schools. International Journal of Science Education 18.8, 969-976.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0950069960180808
 
Yaqin, L. 2002. Socialization of the gender role as seen from Bao Bao's family classroom. Chinese Education and Society 35, 14-22.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2753/CED1061-1932350514
 
Yi, J. (2002). A discussion on the form of elementary school social teaching materials from the angle of gender analysis. Chinese Education and Society 35.5, 63-76.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2753/CED1061-1932350563
 
Zhang, Y. (2002). Analysis of the social gender culture in children's games. Chinese Education and Society 35.5, 77-91.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2753/CED1061-1932350577
 
Zhang, L. (2003). A study of junior middle school language teaching gender issues. Chinese Education and Society 36.3, 19-26.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2753/CED1061-1932360319
 
Zhao, Y. (2002). Analysis of the social gender culture in children's games. Chinese Education and Society 35.5, 77-91.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2753/CED1061-1932350577
 
Zhao, P. (2003). Mother and I: An analysis of the gender roles of two generations of females in junior middle school English-language teaching materials. Chinese Education and Society 36.3, 27-33.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2753/CED1061-1932360327
 
Zittleman, K. & D. Sadker. (2002). Gender bias in teacher education texts: New (and old) lessons. Journal of Teacher Education 53.2, 168-181.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487102053002008


Full Text: PDF


Journal of Language Teaching and Research (JLTR, ISSN 1798-4769)

Copyright @ 2006-2014 by ACADEMY PUBLISHER – All rights reserved.